Authorities reportedly prosecuted Russian citizens returning from Syria and Iraq, where some were subjected to trafficking, under anti-terror laws without being screened for indicators of trafficking. It did not report comprehensive data on trafficking criminal cases, making it difficult to assess the adequacy or effectiveness of law enforcement efforts. Homeless children are exploited in sex trafficking. The government did not consistently provide comprehensive information on prosecution efforts, but the limited available data and media reports suggest prosecutions remained low compared with the scope of Russia’s trafficking problem. Corruption among some government officials and within some state agencies creates an environment enabling trafficking crimes. Despite the lack of significant efforts, the government took some steps to address trafficking, including by removing officials who may have been complicit in forced labor, facilitating the return of Russian children from Iraq and Syria, and identifying some victims, including foreign nationals. • Increase efforts to raise public awareness of both sex and labor trafficking, including among minors. Without specific legislation differentiating trafficking victims from victims of other crimes, government agencies claimed they had neither the means nor authority to provide assistance programs specifically for trafficking victims. There are between five and 12 million foreign workers in Russia, of which the government estimates 2 million are irregular migrants. Women and children from Europe (predominantly Ukraine and Moldova), Southeast Asia (primarily Vietnam), Africa (particularly Nigeria), and Central Asia are victims of sex trafficking in Russia. Forced prostitution occurs in brothels, hotels, and saunas, among other locations. There were limited examples of government cooperation with civil society. In February 2018, government officials announced that in accordance with UNSCRs 2375 and 2397, Russia would cease issuing new work permits to North Korean laborers and repatriate those workers whose contracts had expired. Russian authorities cooperated in some international investigations involving Russian nationals subjected to trafficking abroad. Media reports indicated Russia had begun to repatriate the laborers whose permits had expired. Homeless children are exploited in sex trafficking. The business is booming, but it is important to have conversations about the links between mail-order brides and human trafficking. Moreover, DPRK authorities reportedly arrested, imprisoned, subjected to forced labor, tortured, and sometimes executed repatriated trafficking victims. Russia did not have a national action plan, nor was there a designated lead agency to coordinate anti-trafficking measures; legislation that would implement such a framework continued to languish at the highest levels within the presidential administration. Spain is for the most part a destination for victims, mainly from Eastern Europe (mainly Romania), Africa (mainly Nigeria), Asia (mainly China) and South America (mainly Paraguay), as well as for transit to other destinations, chiefly European countries such as France and the United Kingdom. Authorities punished child victims of forced criminality. Media reports about these investigations and prosecutions revealed several cases involving baby-selling, a crime that falls outside the international definition of trafficking. Frequently, authorities criminally charged victims with prostitution or unlawful presence in country. A government-funded homeless shelter accepted Russian and foreign trafficking victims, provided medical and psychiatric aid, and referred victims to international NGOs and other homeless shelters located in many of Russia's regions. Some government officials noted an allowance for the extension of contracts for North Korean laborers who had valid contracts as of September 11, 2017 and were still in Russia, while a government spokesperson stated new workers were arriving if authorities had finalized their work authorizations prior to the adoption of UNSCR 2375. However, the number of victims identified by the government remained negligible and authorities routinely deported potential forced labor victims without screening for signs of exploitation and prosecuted sex trafficking victims for prostitution offenses. Despite media reports that alleged the use of forced labor in the construction of the new Russian embassy in Panama in 2017, the government did not report any investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of government employees or contractors complicit in human trafficking offenses. Subcontracting practices in Russia’s construction industry result in cases of non-payment or slow payment of wages, which leave workers at risk of labor trafficking. There were limited examples of government cooperation with civil society. The government reported three acquittals. Many of these migrant workers experience exploitative labor conditions characteristic of trafficking cases, such as withholding of identity documents, non-payment for services rendered, physical abuse, lack of safety measures, or extremely poor living conditions. As in previous years, the government did not draft a national strategy or assign roles and responsibilities to government agencies. Authorities did not screen other vulnerable populations, such as migrant workers or foreign women entering Russia on student visas despite evidence of their intention to work or other vulnerabilities to trafficking. Women and children from Europe (predominantly Ukraine and Moldova), Southeast Asia (primarily China and the Philippines), Africa (particularly Nigeria), and Central Asia are victims of sex trafficking in Russia. The article gives law enforcement statistics on the issue, law and practice developments on human trafficking and the gains that the Russian law enforcement agency has acquired in the fight against human trafficking. Foreign laborers work primarily in construction, housing, and utilities, and as public transport drivers, seasonal agricultural workers, tailors and garment workers in underground garment factories, and vendors at marketplaces and shops. NGOs reported law enforcement worked with NGOs to remove victims from brothels and slave labor situation, obtain documents, and help repatriate victims from Nigeria, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. However, observers also noted other authorities often did not recognize foreign victims when they were unlawfully present in Russia, which resulted in the penalization of foreign victims rather than their referral to care. In July 2017, Russia provided in-kind support for an OSCE conference focusing on the role of public-private partnerships in the fight against human trafficking; however, the event focused on the global scope of the problem rather than the challenges in Russia. The government did not have a body to monitor its anti-trafficking activities or make periodic assessments measuring its performance. Russian Efforts to Fight Human Trafficking Among Global Worst, Report Says. According to law enforcement statistics, of these 19 identified victims, 16 were Russian and three were from unspecified Central Asian countries; five were female sex trafficking victims, one female and three males were victims of forced labor, and 10 were children, although many of these were baby-selling cases. Similar to the previous reporting period, the government took steps to limit or ban the activities of other civil society groups, including some dedicated to anti-trafficking activities. From the limited available information, authorities prosecuted trafficking suspects through Articles 127.1 and 127.2 of the criminal code, which criminalized “trade in people” and “use of slave labor.” These articles prescribed punishments of up to five years of forced labor or up to six years of imprisonment for “trade in people” and up to five years’ imprisonment for “use of slave labor.” These penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with punishments prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. While the letters offered no official status to the migrants, they allowed victims to remain in the Moscow region without risk of deportation or prosecution while police investigated their trafficking case. The "Yarovaya" package of anti-terror laws made it a crime for individuals or organizations to provide material assistance to people considered to be in Russia illegally. Investigate allegations and prevent the use of forced labor in construction projects and North Korean-operated labor camps; screen for trafficking indicators before deporting or repatriating migrants, including from the DPRK; allocate funding to state bodies and anti-trafficking NGOs to provide specialized assistance and rehabilitative care to trafficking victims; develop formal national procedures to guide law enforcement, labor inspectors, and other government officials in identifying and referring victims to service providers, particularly among labor migrants and individuals involved in prostitution; increase efforts to investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses and convict traffickers including complicit officials, respecting due process; create a national anti-trafficking action plan and establish a central coordinator for government efforts; implement a formal policy to ensure identified trafficking victims are not punished, detained, or deported for acts committed as a direct result of being subjected to trafficking; provide victims access to legal alternatives to deportation to countries where they face hardship or retribution; create a central repository for publicly available information on investigation, prosecution, conviction, and sentencing data for trafficking cases; and increase efforts to raise public awareness of both sex and labor trafficking. This is not a UNHCR publication. An international organization identified more than 2,400 trafficking cases in Russia from 2015 to 2017. A shelter “for women in difficult life situations,” run by the Russian Orthodox Church, continued to accept victims and offered them food housing and psychological care, although not medical assistance; the government did not provide financial support for the shelter. In October 2018, the government signed an agreement with Uzbekistan on the organized recruitment of Uzbek citizens for temporary employment in Russia. 1. An official website of the United States government, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, Office of the U.S. Russia did not have a national action plan, nor was there a designated lead agency to coordinate anti-trafficking measures; legislation that would implement such a framework continued to languish at the highest levels within the presidential administration. Authorities reportedly prosecuted Russian citizens returning from Syria and Iraq, where some were subjected to trafficking, under anti-terror laws without being screened for indicators of trafficking. The Government of Russia does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; therefore Russia remained on Tier 3. In 2003 an estimated 300,000 to 1.5 million illegal arms were in circulation within Russia. Russian government officials stated they were taking steps to fulfill its obligations under the relevant UN Security Council resolution to repatriate all of these workers by the end of 2019, and reported the number of DPRK workers in Russia declined steadily throughout 2018 from 30,023 to 11,490 by the end of 2018. While these raids took place with some regularity, the use of undocumented or forced labor remained widespread due to complacency and corruption. Prior to 2018, the DPRK sent approximately 20,000 North Korean citizens to Russia annually for work in a variety of sectors, including logging in Russia’s Far East—an estimated 11,490 North Korean citizens are believed to be present in Russia; many of these North Korean citizens are subjected to conditions of forced labor. The latest statistics provided by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), based on statistics collected by the Russian government, show that in 2015, there were 285 detected victims of trafficking under the different trafficking-related articles 1 of Russia’s criminal code. Law enforcement training centers provided lectures and courses on trafficking for investigators and prosecutors. Try our corporate solution for free! The government maintained negligible efforts to protect victims. In 2017, Russia's federal-level investigative committee publicly reported 19 investigations, 16 under article 127.1 and three under 127.2, an increase from seven investigations reported in 2016. The last dedicated trafficking shelters closed in 2015 due to lack of funding; however, government-funded homeless shelters could accommodate Russian and foreign victims. The government continued to operate regional migration centers where migrants could obtain work permits directly from the government; however, the permits contained large upfront fees and sometimes required multiple time-consuming trips to the center to obtain. Out of all these cases, only 38 traffickers received convictions as of 2013. Coordinator for the Arctic Region, Bureaus and Offices Reporting Directly to the Secretary, Office of the Coordinator for Cyber Issues, Office of the U.S. CHILD SEX TRAFFICKING IN RUSSIA It is estimated that among 80,000 to 130,000 sex trade victims in Moscow, 20 to 25% are minors.3 Statistics provided by Moscow police indicated that more than 70,000 victims of trafficking for prostitution are in Moscow, of which 80 per cent Law enforcement training centers provided instruction on trafficking identification. In approximately 54% of human trafficking cases, the recruiter is a stranger, and in 46% of the cases, the recruiters know the victim. Workers from Russia and other countries in Europe, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia – including Vietnam and DPRK – are subjected to forced labor in Russia. Media reports about these investigations and prosecutions revealed several cases involving baby-selling, a crime that falls outside the international definition of trafficking. As reported over the past five years, human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Russia, and victims from Russia are exploited abroad. Teenagers are targeted for "pick-up trainings," sexual education classes in which they are pressured into performing recorded sexual acts on course organizers; the compromising videos are subsequently used to coerce the victims into further sexual exploitation. Women from Russia's North Caucasus region as well as women from Central Asia residing in Russia were recruited to join ISIS through online romantic relationships and subjected to exploitation once they arrived. In a survey conducted in June 2007, in which 1,600 citizens across 45 regions were polled, just over 43 percent of male respondents and 38 percent of females blamed the women … Authorities did not screen other vulnerable populations, such as migrant workers or foreign women entering Russia on student visas despite evidence of their intention to work or other vulnerabilities to trafficking. Russia’s federal-level Investigative Committee publicly reported 14 investigations, 11 under article 127.1 and three under 127.2, a decrease from 19 reported in 2017. The statistics contained on this website are based on aggregated information learned through signals -- phone calls, texts, online chats, emails, and online tip reports -- received by the Trafficking Hotline. NGOs conducted limited trafficking training for local officials. This article has multiple issues. Sex trafficking occurs in brothels, hotels, and saunas, among other locations. (212) 419-8286. firstname.lastname@example.org. Traffickers lure minors from state and municipal orphanages to forced begging, forced criminality, child pornography, and sex trafficking, and use by armed groups in the Middle East. This increase of overall human trafficking is unignorable and the statistics are rising in not just other countries around the world, but in America. The government did not develop or employ a formal system to guide officials in proactive identification of victims or their referral to available services. However, in limited instances, Moscow city police informally provided "permit letters" valid for one year to individuals the police determined were trafficking victims. According to official government statistics, nearly 5,000 foreigners who entered on Fan IDs remained unlawfully in Russia at the beginning of 2019, including 1,863 Nigerians. The government maintained bilateral contracts with the DPRK government, which continued to operate work camps in Russia throughout 2018. According to law enforcement statistics, of these 19 identified victims, 16 were Russian and three were from unspecified Central Asian countries; five were female sex trafficking victims, one female and three males were victims of forced labor, and 10 were children, although many of these were baby-selling cases. At least, that’s how much Anton Pogorelov was sold for in 2015 when he became a slave in a brick factory in Dagestan. While these raids took place with some regularity, the use of undocumented or forced labor remained widespread due to complacency and corruption. • Create a central repository for publicly available information on investigation, prosecution, conviction, and sentencing data for trafficking cases. In recent years, criminal cases have involved Russian officials suspected of allegedly facilitating trafficking in Russia by facilitating victims' entry into Russia, providing protection to traffickers, and returning victims to their exploiters. Authorities denied an NGO’s request to put up billboards advertising hotlines in advance of the World Cup. Employers sometimes bribe Russian officials to avoid enforcement of penalties for engaging illegal workers. The government maintained minimal law enforcement efforts. Corruption among some government officials and within some state agencies creates an environment enabling trafficking crimes. The government offered no funding or programs for trafficking victims' rehabilitation, while several privately run shelters remained closed due to lack of funding and the government's crackdown on civil society. The government identified 20 trafficking victims in 2017. Then, in 2013, Russia was assigned a Tier 3 ranking in the U.S. government’s Trafficking in Persons rankings, the lowest grade possible, which made it ineligible to receive non-humanitarian, non-trade-related foreign assistance, and the controversy over human trafficking escalated. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Official and unofficial statistics estimate there are between 5 and 12 million foreign workers in Russia, of which the government estimates 1.5 million are irregular migrants. Authorities routinely detained and deported possible foreign victims with no effort to screen them as victims or refer them to care providers. The Supreme Court did not release conviction statistics before the close of the reporting period. Many of these migrant workers experience exploitative labor conditions characteristic of trafficking cases, such as withholding of identity documents, non-payment for services rendered, physical abuse, lack of safety measures, or extremely poor living conditions. Without specific legislation differentiating trafficking victims from victims of other crimes, government agencies claimed they had neither the means nor authority to provide assistance programs specifically for trafficking victims. Instances of labor trafficking have been reported in construction, manufacturing, logging, saw mills, agriculture, sheep farms, brick factories, textile, grocery stores, maritime industries, and domestic service, as well as in forced begging, waste sorting, and street sweeping. Human trafficking in Russia Last updated September 23, 2019. An international organization identified more than 2,400 trafficking cases in Russia from 2015 to 2017. Last Updated: Friday, 15 January 2021, 09:32 GMT, 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, Survivors of trafficking / Persons at risk of trafficking. Police regularly avoided registering victims in criminal cases that were unlikely to be solved in order not to risk lower conviction rates. Authorities conducted scheduled and unannounced audits of firms employing foreign laborers to check for violations of immigration and labor laws—with penalties in the form of revoking foreign worker permits. The Government of Russia does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; therefore Russia remained on Tier 3. There is a lack of statistics regarding the number of mail-order brides who are abused by their husbands, which makes it difficult to assess the magnitude of the problem in the United States.