Reported in Slate, the history of Lake Victoria is a fascinating one. The water since at least 12,000 years ago drained across a natural rock weir. Because of this, most of Lake Victoria's nutrients are thought to be locked up in lake-bottom deposits. Lake Victoria was called after its namesake, Queen Victoria, following its discovery by British explorer, John Speke in 1858. Lake Tanganyika. Lake Victoria (or Victoria Nyanza in the Bantu language) is the largest of the African Great Lakes, the largest lake in Africa and the world’s second largest freshwater lake by surface area, after Lake Superior. In this way, the Nile perch has degraded the diverse and thriving ecosystem that was once Lake Victoria.  This expedition was financially sponsored by the Royal Geographic Society. A standard for mimicking the old rate of outflow called the "agreed curve" was established, setting the maximum flow rate at 300 to 1,700 cubic metres per second (392–2,224 cu yd/sec) depending on the lake's water level. Lake Victoria covers an area of 26,828 square miles and reaches a depth of 270 feet which makes it the largest lake in Africa.  Survey catches in 1927-28 included several Haplochromis species that are now thought to be extinct, including: Haplochromis flavipinnis, Haplochromis gowersii, Haplochromis longirostris, Haplochromis macrognathus, Haplochromis michaeli, Haplochromis nigrescens, Haplochromis prognathus. With a surface area of just under 70 000 km², Lake Victoria not only dominates this part of East Africa but ranks as the second largest freshwater lake in the world. Other access points to Lake Victoria from Kenya are Kisii and Homa Bay. The Lake Victoria region is one of the most densely populated in Africa; within 50 miles (80 km) of its shores live several million people, nearly all Bantu-speaking. (2017). ... Countries.  Others have become extinct in their pure form, but survive as hybrids between close relatives (especially among the detritivores). Lake Victoria On World Map It is that time of the month when we briefly take our gaze off Covid-19 deaths and infections and look at who is winning or losing from the pandemic and other goings-on shaking our world. 2. These cities and towns are also home to many factories that discharge some chemicals directly into the lake or its influent rivers. There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper.. Understandably so, Lake Victoria Africa attracts visitors, be they locals who come to fish the waters, or tourists hoping to enjoy the beautiful landscape. Sediment and suspended solids are filtered out using sand, which acts like a sieve. Coinciding anti-racist protests sweeping the world, the clamor is growing in Africa to rename Lake Victoria which lies in Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. (2008). Located in Entebbe and with Victoria Mall Entebbe reachable within 2.5 miles, Lake Victoria Country Home has express check-in and check-out, non-smoking rooms, a garden, free WiFi and a bar. Until 1963, the fastest and newest ferry, MV Victoria, was designated a Royal Mail Ship. Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization (2016). Nevertheless, others of these features are not consistent within the lakes and have not been adequately explained.…. The lake existed and was known to many Africans in the catchment area long before it was sighted by a European in 1858 when the British explorer John Hanning Speke reached its southern shore while on his journey with Richard Francis Burton to explore central Africa and locate the Great Lakes. The plants may not have been destroyed, instead merely moved to another location. The Kagera River, the largest and most important of the lake affluents, enters the western side of Lake Victoria just north of latitude 1° S. The only other river of note entering from the west is the Katonga, north of Kagera. The Lake Victory Water and Sanitation Project (LVWATSAN) implemented by the Lake Victoria Basin Commission (LVBC) has greatly impacted on the lives of people living in the 15 towns of the 5 East African Community States where the project has been implemented Herbert Nuwamanya, The LVWATSAN Project Coordinator Uganda says the project has highly improved … The lake has a surface area of 68,800 square kilometers (or 26,600 square miles), which also makes it the world’s largest tropical lake. Lake Victoria is a 139-hectare (340-acre) shallow saline lake on the Bellarine Peninsula, Victoria in Australia, close to the township of Point Lonsdale and part of the Lonsdale Lakes Nature Reserve administered by Parks Victoria. Lake Victoria or Victoria Nyanza (also known as Ukerewe and Nnalubaale) is a lake in Africa.It is bordered and governed by the countries of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya.The lake is in the western part of Africa's Great Rift Valley.. Lake Victoria is 68,800 square kilometres (26,560 mi²) in size.  Lake Victoria receives its water additionally from rivers, and thousands of small streams. The Origins of the Nile Perch in Lake Victoria. By 2006, the water levels in Lake Victoria had reached an 80-year low, and Daniel Kull, an independent hydrologist living in Nairobi, Kenya, calculated that Uganda was releasing about twice as much water as is allowed under the agreement, and was primarily responsible for recent drops in the lake's level. , The lake is considered a shallow lake considering its large geographic area with a maximum depth of approximately 80 metres (260 ft) and an average depth of 40 metres (130 ft). Lake Victoria (c.255 mi/410 km long and c.155 mi/250 In 1966, train ferry services between Kenya and Tanzania were established with the introduction of MV Uhuru and MV Umoja.  Scientists argued that further introduction should wait until research showed the effect of the introduction in Kyoga, but by the late 1950s, Nile perch began being caught in Lake Victoria. The project is in line with the Protocol for Sustainable Development of Lake Victoria Basin; Lake Victoria Basin Commission (LVBC) Strategic Plan 2011 – 2016; the participating countries CSPs; and the Bank’s RISP for East Africa.  This invasive weed creates anoxic (total depletion of oxygen levels) conditions in the lake inhibiting decomposing plant material, raising toxicity and disease levels to both fish and people. Find out by taking this quiz about Africa. Its area is 26,828 square miles (69,484 square km).  Another tragedy occurred recently on 20 September 2018 that involved the passagers ferry MV Nyerere from Tanzania that caused the deaths of over 200 people.. Ask your question. Without oxygen, any aerobic life (such as fish) cannot exist in the deeper parts of the lake, forcing all life to exist within a narrow range of depth.  Such adaptions include a larger gill area (adaption for oxygen-poor water), changes in the feeding apparatus, changes to the eyes (giving them a better sight in turbid water) and smaller head/larger caudal peduncle (allowing faster swimming). The lake rests between three countries namely, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Today, the lake and its resources fuel the economies of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. This is an online quiz called Africa - Countries and Lake Victoria.  In recent history only Lake Kyoga was easily accessible to Victoria cichlids, as further downstream movement by the Victoria Nile (to Lake Albert) is prevented by a series of waterfalls, notably Murchison.  In the following decades, the pressure to introduce the Nile perch continued, as did warnings about the possible effects of doing it. , Many mammal species live in the region of Lake Victoria, and some of these are closely associated with the lake itself and the nearby wetlands. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the lake and its surrounding areas were threatened by the consequences of overfishing as well as by ecological damage from pollution and invasive species such as the Nile perch and water hyacinth. The ferry MV Bukoba sank in the lake on 21 May 1996 with a loss of between 800 and 1,000 lives, making it one of Africa's worst maritime disasters. Tanganyika is the longest freshwater lake in the world and the second oldest lake in … In addition, it's the largest tropical lake in the world, and the planet's second largest freshwater lake. , Other factors which may have contributed to the decline of the water hyacinth in Lake Victoria include varying weather patterns, such as El Niño during the last few months of 1997 and first six months of 1998 bringing with it higher levels of water in the lake and thus dislodging the plants. It is convenient size for trade, travels well and is found in much greater numbers than other important fish, such as semutundu (Luganda), Bagrus sp.". In 1952, engineers acting for the government of Colonial Uganda blasted out the weir and reservoir to replace it with an artificial barrage to control the level of the lake and reduce the gradual erosion of the rock weir. Lake Victoria, also called Victoria Nyanza, largest lake in Africa and chief reservoir of the Nile, lying mainly in Tanzania and Uganda but bordering on Kenya. Oluka, 1991. I can only ask if Lake Victoria has any geopolitical importances to these Nile countries? LVRLACC has a current membership of 113 local authorities cutting across three countries namely Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda that share Lake Victoria, with prospective membership from Burundi and Rwanda.  Geological cores taken from its bottom show Lake Victoria has dried up completely at least three times since it formed.  The main group in Lake Victoria is the haplochromine cichlids (Haplochromis sensu lato) with more than 500 species, almost all endemic, and including an estimated 300 that still are undescribed. Uganda has 45 percent of Lake Victoria, while Kenya earns only 6 percent. Located in Entebbe and with Victoria Mall Entebbe reachable within 2.5 miles, Lake Victoria Country Home has express check-in and check-out, non-smoking rooms, a garden, free WiFi and a bar. Join now. The increasing amounts of algae, in turn, increase the amount of detritus (dead plant material) that falls to the deeper portions of the lake before decomposing. Darwall (2018). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Among the freshwater lakes of the world, it is exceeded in size only by Lake Superior in North America. Het Victoriameer (ook wel Victoria Nyanza) is het grootste meer van Afrika en het op een na grootste zoetwatermeer op aarde. The lake rests between three countries namely, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. , Evarcha culicivora is a species of jumping spider (family Salticidae) found only around Lake Victoria in Kenya and Uganda. Its waters fill a shallow depression in the centre of the great plateau that stretches between the Western and Eastern Rift Valleys. They are Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. It was completed in 1999 and began producing hydroelectric power the next year. The lake’s deeply indented northern coast is flat and bare.  The repository contains shoreline, bathymetry, pollution, temperature, wind vector, and other important data for both the lake and the wider Basin. I see the Nile countries often bittering among each other and even some threatening military use. (2006). About this Quiz. They are Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. The fertility of tropical waters depends on the rate at which nutrients can be brought into solution. Lake Victoria receives 80 percent of its water from direct rainfall. The food chain is being altered and in some cases, broken by the indiscriminate eating habits of the Nile perch. Institutions of the East African Community: This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 07:36.  Disregarding the haplochromines, the only native Victoria cichlids are two critically endangered tilapia, the Singida tilapia or ngege (Oreochromis esculentus) and Victoria tilapia (O. Featuring room service, this property also provides guests with a playground. The project aims to provide safe drinking water for an estimated one million people and improved sanitation for 100 000 people. its a huge lake it is covering 3 countries Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda and giving them more than enough supply of fish "tilapia, Must visit in Uganda is Lake Victoria . As a by-product of this the oxygen levels in the deeper layer of water are being depleted. However, the most distal source of the Nile Basin, and therefore the ultimate source of the Nile, is more often considered to be one of the tributary rivers of the Kagera River (the exact tributary remains undetermined), and which originates in either Rwanda or Burundi. Lake Victoria info - Gondwana Safari Tour Operators - Safari Holiday Packages, Lodges, Camps +267 686 1971. The main ports on the lake are Kisumu, Mwanza, Bukoba, Entebbe, Port Bell, and Jinja.  The lake has a shoreline of 7,142 km (4,438 mi) when digitized at the 1:25,000 level, with islands constituting 3.7% of this length. 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T15457A4587658.en, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T15458A4587788.en, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T44523A84352263.en, "Description of three new species of Potamonautes MacLeay, 1838 from the Lake Victoria region in southern Uganda, East Africa (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamonautidae)", "The diversity of benthic molluscs of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi", "The snails spreading fever across Africa", "Haplochromine Cichlids of Lake Victoria", "Lake Victoria Fisheries: An introduction", "Exotic introductions to the fishery of Lake Victoria: What are the management options? It is crossed by the equator. tvlu5044 07.12.2018 History Secondary School +5 pts. London: Crown Agents for the Colonies. The sand filtration helps reduce water-borne diseases and is based on the use of the local environment. Lake Victoria, also called Victoria Nyanza, largest lake in Africa and chief reservoir of the Nile, lying mainly in Tanzania and Uganda but bordering on Kenya. Lake Victoria covers an approximate 68,800 km squared. Believing he had found the source of the Nile on seeing this "vast expanse of open water" for the first time, Speke named the lake after Queen Victoria. …. Their loss is devastating for the lake, the fields of ecology, genetics and evolution biology, and more evidently, for the local fisheries.  Some species have survived in nearby small satellite lakes, have survived in refugias among rocks or papyrus sedges (protecting them from the Nile perch), or have adapted to the human-induced changes in the lake itself. Animal flesh decays considerably faster, however, so the fertility of the lake is dependent on the rate at which these nutrients can be taken up by fish and other organisms. Learn more about the cichlids of Lake Victoria. if so... may I please know what it is? The three countries bordering Lake Victoria – Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania – have agreed in principle to the idea of a tax on Nile perch exports, proceeds to be applied to various measures to benefit local communities and sustain the fishery. Many archipelagos are contained within the lake, as are numerous reefs, often just below the surface of the clear waters. "Freshwater Crabs and Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) of the Nile Basin". As well as being due to the introduction of Nile Perch, the extinction of cichlids in the genus Haplochromis has also been blamed on the lake's eutrophication. What is Rhodesia called today? Conversely, genetic studies indicate that some morphologically distinctive populations, traditionally regarded as separate species, may only be variants of single species. Lake Victoria info - Gondwana Safari Tour Operators - Safari Holiday Packages, Lodges, Camps +267 686 1971. , A number of environmental issues are associated with Lake Victoria and the complete disappearance of many endemic cichlid species has been called the "most dramatic example of human-caused extinctions within an ecosystem". The lake was named after Queen Victoria by the explorer John Hanning Speke, in his reports—the first Briton to document it. Formerly known to the Arabs as Ukerewe, the lake was named by Speke in honour of Queen Victoria of England. Sayer, C.A., L. Máiz-Tomé, and W.R.T.  Some of these, including tilapia and ningu (Labeo victorianus), had already declined in the first half of the 20th century due to overfishing. Lake Victoria is a huge lake in Eastern Africa - it's so big that it stretches over parts of three different countries. The latter likely is the smallest African freshwater crab with a carapace width up to about 1.6 cm (0.6 in), although P. kantsyore of Kagera River, and Platythelphusa maculata and P. polita of Lake Tanganyika are almost as small. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to counteract against the rapidly deteriorating water quality in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB). Local fisheries once depended on catching the lungfish, tilapia, carp and catfish that comprise the local diet. It borders the countries of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. The Land, the Races and their Customs, with Specimens of Some of the Dialects", "How feud wrecked the reputation of explorer who discovered Nile's source", "Origin of the Superflock of Cichlid Fishes from Lake Victoria, East Africa", "Deoxygenation of the deep water of Lake Victoria, East Africa", Verhandlungen der Internationale Vereinigung für Limnologie, "Environmental and Social Management Framework-ESMF", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T60668A97125826.en, "Ancient hybridization fuels rapid cichlid fish adaptive radiations", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T185857A8492470.en, "Prevalence of disruptive selection predicts extent of species differentiation in Lake Victoria cichlids", "Two new species of zooplanktivorous haplochromine cichlids from Lake Victoria, Tanzania", "A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction in Lake Victoria cichlids". Hydrology of Lake Victoria , The Victoria haplochromines are distinctly sexually dimorphic (males relatively brightly colored; females dull), and their ecology is extremely diverse, falling into at least 16 groups, including detritivores, zooplanktivores, insectivores, prawn-eaters, molluscivores and piscivores. Albright, T.P., Moorhouse, T.G., & McNabb, T.J. (January 1, 2004). (August 01, 2008). Lake Victoria is known to be 2nd largest fresh water lake, and is the source of the White Nile river. Lake Victoria is shared among three countries in Africa. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. "Lake Victoria Fish Stocks and the Effects of Water Hyacinth". The influent rivers of Lake Victoria provide few nutrients to the lake in relation to its size. Lake Victoria covers land in all of the following countries EXCEPT Get the answers you need, now! Freshwater biodiversity in the Lake Victoria Basin: Guidance for species conservation, site protection.  The lake's area is divided among three countries: Kenya occupies 6% (4,100 km2 or 1,600 sq mi), Uganda 45% (31,000 km2 or 12,000 sq mi), and Tanzania 49% (33,700 km2 or 13,000 sq mi).. Many towns and cities are reliant on Victoria for their water supplies, for farming and other uses. About Lake Victoria Basin Commission: The East African Community established the Lake Victoria Basin Commission formerly known as the Lake Victoria Development Programme in 2001, as a mechanism for coordinating the various interventions on the Lake and its Basin; and serving as a centre for promotion of investments and information sharing among the various stakeholders.  To boost fishing, several species of non-native tilapia and Nile perch were introduced to the lake in the 1950s.  At the peak in the early 1990s, 500,000 tonnes (490,000 long tons; 550,000 short tons) of Nile perch were landed annually in Lake Victoria, but this has declined significantly in later years. Surviving from the treasure of Chief Rumanika of…, In Central Africa, Lakes Victoria, Albert, Tanganyika, and Nyasa exhibit substantial long-term features, some of which are consistent, suggesting that a common climatological factor is responsible.  The Williams' mud turtle is restricted to Lake Victoria and other lakes, rivers, and swamps in the upper Nile basin. , Lake Victoria formerly was very rich in fish, including many endemics, but a high percentage of these became extinct during the last 50 years. European Investment Bank started the project in 2013 with the aim of protecting the environmental health of the lake, through improved water and sanitation to the towns whose pollution is part of the degradation of the lake. Mailu, A.M., G.R.S. Ochiel, G.S., A.M. Mailu, W. Gitonga and S.W. Below you can see the member countries. Oxygen concentrations in hypolimnetic waters (i.e. Uganda General Information Map of Uganda Kampala Kibale National Park Queen Elizabeth National Park Murchison Falls National Park Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. Crisman, T.L., Chapman, Lauren J., Chapman, Colin A., & Kaufman, Les S. (2003). The first recorded information about Lake Victoria comes from Arab traders plying the inland routes in search of gold, ivory, other precious commodities, and slaves. Being relatively shallow for its size, with a maximum depth of 84 meters (276 feet) and a mean depth of 40 meters (131 feet), Lake Victoria ranks as the seventh largest freshwater lake by volume , containing 2,750 cubic kilometers (2.2 million acre-feet) of water . The overall effects of the water hyacinth, however, are still unknown.  Its catchment area covers 169,858 km2 (65,583 sq mi). Public awareness exercises were also conducted. Source of. Lake Victoria is located on the continent of Africa and it is divided among 3 African countries. As of 2016, an environmental data repository exists for Lake Victoria. Interesting Facts about Lake Victoria 6: the division of Lake Victoria.  These warnings primarily concerned the native tilapia O. esculentus, as the smaller haplochromine cichlids (despite playing an important role in local fisheries) were regarded as "trash fish" by the colonial government. Its shores are dotted with key cities and towns, including Kisumu, Kisii, and Homa Bay in Kenya; Kampala, Jinja and Entebbe in Uganda; and Bukoba, Mwanza, and Musoma in Tanzania.  Furthermore, Graham noted that the introduction of the European flax gill net of 5 inch mesh had undoubtedly caused a diminution in the number of ngege in those parts of the Kavirondo Gulf, the northern shore of the lake, the Sesse Islands and Smith's Sound which are conveniently situated close to markets.  The first introduction of Nile perch to the region, done by the Uganda Game and Fisheries Department (then part of the colonial government) and local African fish guards, happened upstream of Murchison Falls directly after the completion of the Owen Falls Dam in 1954. Lake Victoria is shared among three countries in Africa. A very public quarrel ensued, which not only sparked a great deal of intense debate within the scientific community of the day, but also much interest by other explorers keen to either confirm or refute Speke's discovery.. With a surface area of 69,485 square kilometers, Lake Victoria is Africa’s largest lake, and the world’s largest tropical lake, according to Diversity Inland Waters (DIW). Km. Due to the presence of the Nile perch, the natural balance of the lake's ecosystem has been disrupted.  On the other hand, water hyacinth mats can potentially have a positive effect on fish life in that they create a barrier to overfishing and allow for fish growth, there has even been the reappearance of some fish species thought to have been extinct in recent years. ... Countries. The changes in oxygenation are considered consistent with measurements of higher algal biomass and productivity. Rwanda and Burundi lie in the upper watershed that drains into the Lake. Ochiel, W. Gitonga and S.W.  This deep lake may have functioned as an "evolutionary reservoir" for this haplochromine group in periods where other shallower lakes in the region dried out, as happened to Lake Victoria about 15,000 years ago.  As the species was already present, there were few objections when more Nile perch were transferred to Victoria to further bolster the stock in 1962–63. Uganda has 45 percent of Lake Victoria, while Kenya earns only 6 percent. life for the people living within the Lake Victoria Basin which is in line with the Bank’s focus areas (Hi5s). It was the site of a fishing boom in the 1980s and 90s when the world paid huge money for its Nile perch and tilapia fish. The release of large amounts of untreated wastewater (sewage) and agricultural and industrial runoff directly into Lake Victoria over the past 30 years has greatly increased the nutrient levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lake "triggering massive growth of exotic water hyacinth, which colonised the lake in the late 1990s". Lake Victoria is among the … Corrections? Although it is a part of the same river system known as the White Nile and is occasionally referred to as such, strictly speaking this name does not apply until after the river crosses the Uganda border into South Sudan to the north. Uganda Access points to Lake Victoria from Uganda include Kampala, Jinja & Entebbe. Jäger, J., Bohunovsky, L., Radosh, L., & Sustainability Project. CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (. Burton, who had been recovering from illness at the time and resting further south on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, was outraged that Speke claimed to have proved his discovery to have been the true source of the Nile River, which Burton regarded as still unsettled. The water hyacinth has become a major invasive plant species in Lake Victoria. The Victoria Nyanza and Its Fisheries: A Report on the Fish Survey of Lake Victoria 1927–1928 and Appendices. Lake Victoria (Luo: Nam Lolwe; Luganda: 'Nnalubaale; also Ukerewe) is one of the African Great Lakes.