"It was not until a year later that the full catastrophe of Mao's utopian economic planning sank in. History The Communists and KMT were again temporarily allied during eight years of war with Japan (1937-1945), but shortly after the end of World War Two, civil war broke out between them. Mao was born on 26 December 1893 into a peasant family in Shaoshan, in Hunan province, central China. The goal of this was to bring China back onto the path to socialism and to secure Mao's power over the country. For a year, propaganda was spread throughout the country on the enormous success of Mao's plan. Read more. Essay MAO ZEDONG MATRIC ESSAY. (Spence, 1990) These methods were carried out by Deng Xiaoping as the party secretary-general, and Liu Shaoqi who seemed to be Mao's possible successor. It was a very violent mass movement which affected the People's Republic of China socially, politically, and economically. "One will result in doing the work faster and better; the other slowly and not so well. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. This slowed the rate of collectivization. Mao then declared the People's Republic of China and accepted the election to chairman on October 20, 1949. The communes were no longer military-like, but instead they were administrative units. him 70% right and 30% wrong, which is to say that his. Along with this, poor agricultural techniques were utilized which caused a great deal of damage. They both started incorporating more liberal economic policies, but Mao soon realized that the two officials were "abandoning socialist principles and betraying the Communist revolution of 1949. Read more about Mao’s life here. At one end of historic Tiananmen Square is Mao’s mausoleum, visited daily by large, respectful crowds. The first plan was successful, but the second called the Great Leap Forward was not.  © The products of the backyard steal furnaces were found to be a waste of labor and were considered useless. Mao proposed two main Five Year Plans to change China. Despite the Great Leap was not very successful, it still brought on a several fundamental changes to China. He initially pursued these goals through a massive mobilization of the country's urban youths. His later years saw attempts to build bridges with the United States, Japan and Europe. The beginnings of agricultural collectivization included mutual aid teams and peasant cooperatives. One of these men is Mao Zedong. (Spence, 1990) Due to the new economic development, a great deal of capital was required and this was provided from agriculture, which was the focus of the Chinese economy at the time. One-and-a-half million people died and much of the country's cultural heritage was destroyed. "The Great Leap Forward launched in the name of strengthening the nation by summoning all the people's energies, had turned back on itself and ended by devouring its young. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. For example, the remaining great city walls of Peking were demolished in order to create flaw new boulevards, and many underground shelters were built in case of nuclear attacks from the United States. Although he described his father as a "rich peasant," the family clearly had to work hard for a living. In reality, it was not as successful as it was said to be. In other words, it was used to improve the economic status of China. "(Spence, 1990) This meant that at that time, half of those that were dying were under 10 years old. The people's militia that was formed brought strength to local areas. Mao Zedong was dying a slow, agonizing death. ""Thousands of intellectuals were beaten to death or died of their injuries. As the First Five Year Plan, it moved China forward a great deal. Mao Zedong’s infatuation with ideologies of past political figures, such as Marx and Lenin, are also crucial in understanding Mao’s rise and will be investigated how such philosophies could contribute to the calamitous revolution and where Mao broke away from Marx’s message. "(Meisner, 1999) The plan met its quotas well enough but it revealed the flaws in the Chinese economic system. Mao and other communists retreated to south east China. Houses were demolished and the materials from the demolished houses were used for other purposes. Peasants at the time were starving in their villages. In the comparison of the Chinese Five Year Plans and the Soviet Five Year Plans, the Chinese Five Year Plans occurred at a faster rate. There were food shortages which led to strict rationing and ultimately this lead to famines. Mao envisioned the Jiangxi Soviet as both a military stronghold against the nationalists and a laboratory for the trialling of communist economic and social policies. In this video I summarize the life of Mao Zedong, also known as Chairman Mao, the communist dictator of China. A treaty was made between the Chinese and the Russians for support. In 1976 Mao passed away and lost power. 1967), have all been published in English in Peking. (Michael, 1977) Due to the disappointment brought on by the plan so far, the policy of the Great Leap was quietly abandoned. He was responsible for the disastrous policies of the 'Great Leap Forward' and the 'Cultural Revolution'. Therefore, they created a new part of the Chinese society, heralding the start of a revolution against the gentry as a social class in the country. "(Suite 101, para. Of the countless dictators who have put on the robe of revolution, very few of them have had a direct and lasting impact on the world. Mao Zedong, the father of modern communist China was an important philosopher who gave Marxism its ideas its “Asiatic Form”. Mao's supporters were imprisoned, and Deng Xiaoping, who followed Mao, revised Mao's policies so that Chinese people could have private ownership. Company Registration No: 4964706. He wanted to do that through agriculturalizing, industrializing, and collectivizing. (Spence, 1990) China's central planners, including Chen Yun and Zhou Enlai believed that the peasants of China would produce more if they were given the motivation to do something, the opportunity to buy more consumer goods, better agricultural machinery, and an increased amount of chemical fertilizers. In 1921, he became a founder member of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and set up a branch in Hunan. 2) Mao shut down schools and he ordered the Red Guards to attack traditional values and "bourgeois" things and to publicly criticize party officials in order to test them. "(Winnington, 1986) The Great Leap Forward was Mao's attempt to free himself from Soviet control and to speed up the advance towards communism. The elderly people were to be placed in "old peoples' happy homes" where they were made to work according to their ability. "(Meisner, 1999) This attempt distorted the social and political life of the People's Republic. It is also called The Great Leap Forward because of how much it moved China forward. Mao Zedong tried to reduce China's dependency on foreign industry by instituting the 5-year Plan. However, the product of this revolution created a massive national shortage in vital materials and initiated a wide scale famine to China’s people (Gabriel). The Chinese army grew stronger due to the modern weapons supplied by the Soviet Union. Reference this. He executed all that opposed his ideas. Find out more about how the BBC is covering the. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. "(Spence, 1990). Mao Zedong (vereenvoudigd Chinees: 毛泽东; traditioneel Chinees: 毛澤東; pinyin: Máo Zédōng) (Shaoshan, 26 december 1893 – Peking, 9 september 1976) was een Chinees rebellenleider, dictator, partijleider en grondlegger van de Volksrepubliek China waarvan hij de eerste leider was. Chairman Mao Zedong gathered a group of r… Mao's response to the disappointing agricultural production was "a strategy of heightened production through moral incentives and mass mobilization under the direction of inspirational local party leaders." Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? One of the main ones was the wrongly applied method of deep plowing used. The Second Five Year Plan did not go at all as planned and China's state was not very good at the time. In Mao's opinion, this way, China was growing closer to communism. The people were to live together in barracks and they were to eat together in barrack mess halls with communal kitchens and they were then to be organized into work teams with labor applied to industrial or rural work. Mao vormde ruim 26 jaar het gezicht van de Volksrepubliek China. Looking for a flexible role? (Meisner, 1999). Only the peasants could provide both the labor and the tax that was required by the economic development. The plans started after the completion of the first phase of the land reform campaign. Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers. Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-Tung), the son of a peasant farmer, was born in Chaochan, China, in 1893.He became a Marxist while working as a library assistant at Peking University and served in the revolutionary army during the 1911 Chinese Revolution.. Mao was a Chinese communist leader and founder of the People's Republic of China. The gradual transformation from private ownership to collectivization was to test whether collectivization was accepted or resisted. I personally wrote these essays in my final NSC History exams and recieved a distinction. The have all been checked, edited, and perfected over the course of my matric year. This essay answers the question: “The implementation of Mao Zeodong’s policies … The pooling together of households, child-raising, and cooking arrangements changed family structures significantly, though it showed that independent families were still a more popular form of social organization. "(Spence, 1990) Cities were transformed a great deal, sometimes costing the cities aesthetically. It was Mao's last revolutionary act and it turned into a great catastrophe. He attempted to show the "joys" and "advantages" of being communist. These people included children who suffered from the years of malnutrition brought on by the Great Leap. China was organized into approximately 26,000 communes. This is the support that Russia already gave China before the First Five Year Plan. This plan was inspired by the Soviet Five Year Plans by Joseph Stalin in Russia, which started in 1928. VAT Registration No: 842417633. In 1949 Mao got his power. Further Reading on Mao Zedong. In 1957, before the Great Leap had begun, "the median age of those dying was 17.6 years; in 1963 it was down to 9.7. "[V]arieties of radical groups who were not coordinated by central leadership, struggled with party leaders and with each other." Mao Zedong Born in every country is a leader, strategist, theorist, and a hero whose name will go down in history. Mao Zedong 毛泽东 Coin takes some influence from "PutinCoin", although in real life Mao was far ahead of Putin in capabilities and the ability to play politics at the Niccolò Machiavelli level.This coin takes no influence from the "devs" that suddenly used Georgian and Russian ex-leaders of the CCCP, and a German economist/philosopher. Mao Zedong, also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. All opposition was ruthlessly suppressed. In addition to this, high output of materials was very important and therefore quantity was placed above quality. Mao's First Five Year Plan was utilized to increase the industrial and agricultural output of the People's Republic of China. For a brief period in the early 1960s, more pragmatic communist leaders like Liu Shaoqi ( pronounced Leo Sh-ao Chee ) and Deng Xiaoping , took control. In June 1981, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) issued an of cial judgment of Mao Zedong, assessing. To what extent are modern day eugenics policies in China a response to cold war policies of Mao Zedong? One very extreme form of humiliation was when the people were force to stand with their backs bent and arms outstretched which was described as an "air-plane position. The aftermath of his plans and his revolution continued to change China, long after his death. During this time, many people were looking for jobs and people moved from rural areas to urban areas. Even though the communists held no respect for the Kuomintang or their leader, Mao was willing to form temporary alliances which would help him achieve his long-term goals. Mao then formed the Red Army and his followers elected him as the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party. From there on, Mao ruled with an "iron fist." (Michael, 1977) "The people were assigned to squadrons, formed into companies, battalions, regiments and divisions, and in addition to the organization of labor in this form, these units were also to provide regular military training-for women as well as for men-in a people's militia." He started the Revolution in order to ensure the support of his followers, to recover from the Second Five Year Plan, and to bring China back onto the path of socialism. (Spence, 1990) The Chinese utilized a method that was also applied in Eastern European Communist states. In February 1930, after a year of consolidation, Mao and his supporters formed the Jiangxi Soviet, an attempt to create a self-governing, self-sustaining rural base. This was the work of the communes and the communal labor teams. "China was basically a land of individual peasant owner-cultivators. In 1955, Mao stated that full collectivization would have to be completed by the end of the First Five Year Plan and the industrial development depended on the full collectivization of agriculture. By the turn of the 20th century, part of the China’s traditional elites like landlords increasingly became skeptical of the Confucianism. Kao Kang was the head of administration in Manchuria at the time. This resulted in a restatement of the aims of the economic program on December 10. Read a biography about the life of Mao Zedong the Chinese communist leader responsible for the disastrous policies including the 'Great Leap Forward' and the 'Cultural Revolution'. Mao Zedong Dictators. The Great Leap Forward •GOAL: to modernize China’s Economy •Begins 1958 : Focus on Agriculture & Industry •To LEAP decades ahead by focusing on large scale NATIONAL projects 1st Jan 1970 The political agenda at the time was to not only confiscate or destroy private property, but to also completely nationalize all industrial enterprises, to abolish interests on deposits in the state banks, to evict landlords from their own houses, to eliminate private plots, to strengthen the commune system, and to private market economy (this included even very poor peasants selling vegetables at a village corner). In 1953, when the First Five Year Plan was being initiated, more assistance from the Soviet was required. In 1972, US President Richard Nixon visited China and met Mao. Which method shall we adopt? Mao’s policies in the early 1950s began China’s transition from an undeveloped agricultural economy into an industrial and military superpower. The forms of public humiliation grew more and more humiliating and complicated. BBC © 2014 The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. The first Five-Year Plan for the future of China was launched by Mao Zedong in 1953, in which the Soviet Union was held up as the model for development. This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. The government had a great deal of budgetary deficits and they solved that problem by selling government bonds. Kao Kang was the chairman of the committee at the time. The highest point of this radical program came in 1967 and it was given the name the "January power seizure." Some remember how they searched for apricot pits fallen from trees in order to press them for oil or boil them for porridge. Communist is a society where people 's properties are owned. In 1958, Mao launched his second Five Year Plan, dubbed the Great … Modification of the Basic Ideology of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China During this time, Mao attempted to encourage peasants to form communes which would increase production levels. The objective of it was to increase the rate of economic growth. He wanted to change the agrarian society that is China, into a modern communist society instead. He was born December 26, 1893, in the small village of Shaoshan in Hunan province. A small group of Mao's followers, along with his wife Jiang Qing and other radicals, the party was purged and soon both Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping were removed from their posts and subjected to an enormous amount of criticism and humiliation, their families included. And yet Mao Zedong remains the most honored figure in the Chinese Communist Party. The process was accelerated due to Soviet help and also from referencing to the examples provided by the Russian Five Year Plans. This included the following: political, military, economic, and cultural. Industry had to be shifted from the construction of small enterprises to the establishment of small enterprises all over the country. He believed that this would be beneficial for the young people of China because they could learn proletarian values and the lifestyle. A common slogan in the 1950s summed it up: “The Soviet Union’s today is our tomorrow.”At same time, however, one can detect within Mao’s policies and statements … To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Mao's vision for China was to transform China into a "strong, prosperous, independent, modern industrial socialist state by combining effective leadership with participation by the people." All work is written to order. The idea of communes was still maintained but the function of these communes was limited to coordination and direction. Mao appeared victorious, but his health was deteriorating. In comparison to the Kuomintang, the Kuomintang solved budgetary deficits by issuing new notes and borrowing large sums of money from creditors. 9, 1976), the father of modern China, is not only remembered for his impact on Chinese society and culture but for his global influence, including on political revolutionaries in the United States and the Western world in the 1960s and 1970s. The Chinese intellectual tradition of the past century can be defined by the concept of iconoclasm and nationalism. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! At the time, China still owed Russia a great deal and China greatly needed an agricultural surplus in order to pay back the huge amount of debt it owed to the Soviet government. For example, running machines without oiling them, and not installing the machines on a level surface were some of the common mistakes made. "(Spence, 1990) The resultant was a famine that caused a great deal of damage. Once China became weak and poor Mao Zedong took power. In order to handle this program, thousands of Russian technical advisors were sent to China to help with industrial planning, factory building, development of hydroelectric power, extension of the railway network, and more. The rest of the day was also scheduled and the evenings usually included communal recreation. Elderly people and intellectuals, in addition to being verbally abused were also physically abused by the Red Guards and many died. In 1961 it fell to 154 kilos. Many of the output goals were met or exceeded with few exceptions. The Communists were more efficient. This page has been archived and is no longer updated. The leaders of the Revolution also "called for a comprehensive attack on the '"four old'" elements within Chinese society-old customs, old habits, old culture, and old thinking…"(Spence, 1990) The Red Guards were eager to prove their integrity and anyone who had had Western education or interacted with Western businessmen or missionaries, and intellectuals were punished. People get paid according to their abilities. The amount of working hours was reduced while the amount of pay was increased. The Communists were victorious, and on 1 October 1949 Mao proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Unfortunately, in 1956, resistance against collectivization became evident. Private garden plots and the ownership of domestic animals were permitted again. With that debacle, Mao, and with him, Mao Zedong Thought, were marginalized. In early 1929, Mao and Zhu De led their armies into southern Jiangxi. The young were encouraged to attack their teachers, school administrators, party leaders, and parents. One small-scale industrial development that was used were the "backyard steel furnaces." From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) in July 1974, he gradually lost control of his … Thousands were imprisoned in solitary confinement and millions were sent off to "purify" themselves through labor in the countryside. Countless other committed suicide…"(Spence, 1990) The country was gripped with fear, excitement, tension, and euphoria which brought on violence. The choice of Kao Kang to be the chairman was a clear dependence on the Soviet Union as he was chosen by Mao. During this time, religion was frowned upon and temples and religious monuments were destroyed or damaged. "(Michael, 1977) Instead of an increase in production as was stated, there was actually a decline. The purpose of Mao's Second Five Year Plan was still to increase industrial and agricultural output but it was not a very big success. In the 1960’s, Mao Zedong, revered as a god to his people, was able to completely change how China’s political and economic systems work. This treaty was called the Sino-Russian Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance and it was formed in 1950. He utilized the fact that the Chinese people were "poor and blank" and as he phrased it, "poor people want change, want to do things, want revolution. Jiang Qing along with some cultural workers deemed the Wuhan work as "a perfect example of politically erroneous writing, and warned that the Chinese cultural garden was overgrown with "'anti-socialist poisonous weeds. In 1934, after the KMT surrounded them, Mao led his followers on the 'Long March', a 6,000 mile journey to northwest China to establish a new base. They both started incorporating more liberal economic policies, but Mao soon realized that the two officials were "abandoning socialist principles and betraying the Communist revolution of 1949. In order "[f]or China's heavy industry to keep up its rapid development, accordingly, production by the agricultural sector had to increase." Mao wanted "to replace his designated successors with leaders more faithful to his current thinking; to rectify the Chinese Communist Party; to provide China's youths with a revolutionary experience; and to achieve some specific policy changes so as to make the educational, health care, and cultural systems less elitist. Policies of Mao Zedong •The Great Leap Forward •The Cultural Revolution . 2) Mao's wife, Jiang Qing was the one who urged Mao to start the Cultural Revolution. Two of the party's senior officials Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping replaced Mao with the day-to-day affairs of the People's Republic. The result, instead, was a massive decline in agricultural output, which, together with poor harvests, led to famine and the deaths of millions. The idea was to "use militarized manpower instead of capital equipment to speed up and increase economic production." In 1966, two groups met to discuss the Wuhan incident which was a conflict between two hostile groups wanting to take over the city of Wuhan. In an attempt to re-assert his authority, Mao launched the 'Cultural Revolution' in 1966, aiming to purge the country of 'impure' elements and revive the revolutionary spirit. After World War II ended, Mao's army defeated Chiang's army and Chiang retreated. In 1923, Mao, the Leader of the Chinese Communist Party and Chiang Kai-Shek, the leader of the Kuomintang temporarily merged parties. The plan was to double industrial output and increase agricultural output by 35 per cent in five years. A way he utilized was a slogan which said "Dare to Think, Dare to Act." After training as a teacher, he travelled to Beijing where he worked in the University Library. The private ownership of domestic animals was even prohibited. Chiang Kai-shek fled to the island of Taiwan. In 1927, the merge split due to the different views on Soviet interests that Mao and Chiang held. Manchuria had the greatest concentration of natural resources and due to it being a Japanese puppet state, it was the most industrialized area in China. "The average amount of grain available to each person in China's countryside, which had been 205 kilos in 1957 and 201 kilos in 1958, dropped to a disastrous 183 kilos in 1959, and a catastrophic 156 kilos in 1960." The people worked so much that even at night, there was little time to rest, due to the resulting weakness, illness, and death caused by the labor.